Rural-urban migration has got both positive and negative effects on both rural areas and urban areas. These include;
- It has resulted in the depopulation of rural areas causing a negative effect on agricultural development since the movement includes escaping of energetic men and women.
- It has resulted in rapid growth of urban areas; however, this has got problems such as slum growth, unemployment, high crime rate, poor sanitation
- It has resulted in racial ethnicity diversity which leads to racial conflicts and tension. This is because movement involves all kinds of citizens.
- It has resulted into intermarriages between tribes which has led to the loss of traditional values and culture. This has increased on immoralities and sexual abuse
- Since rural-urban migration increases the population in towns, this puts the government to task to provide social infrastructure like water, health, education, and security, which may drain the government budget.
- Rural-urban migration may lead to famine due to the decline in agriculture since the energetic men and women who would have facilitated agricultural development in rural areas moved to towns.
- It increases encroachment on wetlands and swamps in cities in search for land for settlement. This later result into floods and disease outbreak
- Rural-urban migration leads to traffic and human congestion in urban areas and this causes delays, especially during rush hours and easy disease spread.
- Positively, rural-urban migration is an important source of labour especially unskilled in urban centres. Such labour is used for industrial development like in Mbale and Jinja.
- Rural-urban migration leads to land consolidation in rural areas and useful utilization of the available resources by the remaining people in villages.