Rural-urban migration has got both positive and negative effects on both rural areas and urban areas. These include;
- It has resulted into depopulation of rural areas causing a negative effect on agricultural development since movement includes escaping of energetic men and women.
- It has resulted into rapid growth of urban areas; however this has got problems such as slum growth, un-employment, high crime rate, poor sanitation.
- It has resulted into racial ethnicity diversity which leads to racial conflicts and tension like in central region. This is because movement involves all kinds of citizens.
- It has resulted into intermarriages between tribes which has led to loss of traditional values and culture. This has increased on immoralities and sexual abuse
- Since rural urban migration increases population in towns, this puts government to task to provide social infrastructure like water, health, education, security, which may drain government budget.
- Rural urban migration may lead to famine due to the decline in agriculture since the energetic men and women who would have facilitated agricultural development in rural areas moved to towns.
- It increases encroachment on wetlands and swamps in cities in search for land for settlement. This later result into floods and disease outbreak
- Rural urban migration leads to traffic and human congestion in urban areas and this causes delays especially during rush hours and easy disease spread.
- Positively, rural urban migration is an important source of labour especially unskilled in urban centres. Such labour is used for industrial development.
- Rural urban migration leads to land consolidation in rural areas and useful utilization of the available resources by the remaining people in villages.