Grikes and Clints
Clints – Blocks of limestone rock left standing when water infiltrates through the limestone rocks widening and deepening the joints.
Grikes – Deep groves or gullies formed when rainwater infiltrates through limestone rocks widening the joints by solution.
Deep vertical holes formed on limestone rocks when solution extends the grikes.
Referred to as swallow/sinkholes because surface runoff or river water may disappear through them as a waterfall and come out of the ground as a vauclusian spring further downhill.
A vertical shaft from the surface of the sinkhole down into the ground is called ponor.
Steep valleys with no permanent streams on limestone surface at the section between the swallow hole and where the river emerges.
A small outlet to the surface from a cavern formed when continuous carbonation at the surface causes the roof of the cave to collapse.
Deep steep-sided river valley in limestone rocks formed when the swallowed river causes the solution to continue underground causing the roof of the underground watercourse to collapse.
Small section left joining the roof between the karst window and gorge.
Elliptical hollow with gently sloping sides on the surface of a limestone region formed when several swallow holes collapse and merge.
Depression which may be as wide as 1 km in diameter formed on the surface of limestone regions when several dolines collapse and merge.
Largest, shallow, elliptical and flat-floored depressions on a limestone region formed when several uvulas collapse and merge.
May become a temporary lake or may be covered by a marsh.