These effects are both positive and majorly negative as explained below.
- There is a problem of inadequate housing facilities in many towns in Uganda, this has led to the growth of slums like in Kampala there is Katanga, kamwokya, Kisenyi, etc.
- There is unemployment in many towns in Uganda like in Mbarara and Kasese due to high rates of rural urban migration causing high population densities.
- There is high rate of rural urban migration in Uganda which has resulted into social problems such as alcoholism, prostitution, rapid spread of diseases, poor sanitation, youth moral decay, etc, in Jinja, Kasese and Masaka.
- Shortage of social services such as health and education, water, etc. this is caused by high population in urban areas which later leads to high cost of living like in Tororo, Gulu and Mukono.
- Some urban centers like Kampala experiences floods due to encroachment on swamps and wetlands. Such floods have led to death of people and property destruction like in Bwaise and Karerwe in Kampala.
- There is land, air and water pollution in urban areas caused by garbage, uncontrolled sewerage, industrial and vehicle fumes and wastes. This has caused environmental degradation in Jinja, Kampala and Kasese.
- Urban centers like Kampala and Jinja face a problem of traffic congestion which cause a lot of delays and inconvenience especially during rush hours. This affect business and production as well as administration duties.
- Limited land for expansion which has today led to encroachment on swamps and wetlands thus floods like in Kawara, Namugoona and Bwaise in Kampala.
- Towns like Entebbe, Mukono and Wakiso experiences high costs of living and high crime rate. This is causes by un-employment as a result of rural urban migration.