There are basically two methods used,
this applies when the mineral ore is near the surface of the earth requiring the excavation of the top layer of soil so as to reach the ore body which is then extracted with the
help of tractors and carrier truck. E.g. in Zimbabwe for gold, Karamoja-Uganda for gold, etc.
this applies when the mineral ore is far deep in the earth’s crust involving the construction of tunnels so as to reach the ore body. The length of tunnels or shafts is determined by the coverage of the mineral ore. E.g. in South Africa, Zambia, etc