The Branches of Agriculture

The Branches of Agriculture

Definition of Agriculture:

It’s an Art or science of growing crops and rearing of animals to produce materials needed by human consumption.

Agriculture is a science because it involves knowledge of other subjects like; Biology, Geography, physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

Agriculture is an Art because it involves operations, use of farm tools and their maintenance.

The Branches of Agriculture

Agriculture has 5 major branches/ sections which include;

Soil science / Pedology:

Deals with the origin of soil, properties fertility, conservation and/also how soil interacts with crops to animals, and how its productivity can be sustained.

Crop science/Crop Husbandry

Deals with practices carried out to produce a particular crop.
This involves land preparation, and all Agronomic practices involved when growing crops like; Mulching, fertilizer application, Rouging, Manuring, Early planting, pruning, staking, threshing, Gapping, thinning, etc.

Crop farming can be grouped into:

  • Growing of field crops such as coffee, Tea, cotton, Bananas with annual crops like; Maize, Beans, Soya beans e.t.c.
  • Horticulture: This is the growing of flowers on a large scale.
  • Olericulture:- This is the growing of vegetables on large scale e.g. Tomatoes, Egg plants, Pepper, Cabbages.
  • Pomology:-growing of fruits such as Mangoes, Ovacadoes, Apples, etc on a large scale

Animal Science / Animal husbandry

This deals with animal feeding / Nutrition, housing, Reproduction and health.

Live stock farming can be grouped into;

Pastoralism

A system of livestock farming where farmers look after livestock as their main occupation. They keep large herds of cattle, land for grazing them is for the community as a whole.

Nomadism

is a type of livestock farming where the farmers keep moving from place to place with their cattle searching for water and pastures e.g. Turkana, Boran, and Somali.

Sedentary Pastoralists

These pastoralists settle in one area and establish permanent homesteads e.g. – Bahima of Western Uganda.

Transhumance Pastoralism

is where Pastoralists move their animals looking for water and pasture when their areas are hit by drought but later go back and settle in their homesteads when conditions are favourable e.g. Karamojong.

Aquaculture

involves rearing of fish in ponds as a source of food and income.

Apiculture

involves keeping of bees for honey, wax also source of income

Poultry farming

involves the keeping of domestic birds for the production of eggs, meat, and income generation.

Agricultural Economics

This deals with economic principles of profit maximization, and output from the available resources of production.

Agricultural Engineering

This deals with the production and use of tools, machines, farm structures, and their maintenance in Agriculture.

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