Weather can be defined as the physical condition or state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.

Elements of Weather Are the basic atmospheric condition of a place at a given time.

There are 7 element of weather

i)    Sunshine

ii)   Temperature

iii)   Humidity

iv)   Cloud cover

v)    Precipitation

       vi)    Wind

      vii)   Atmospheric pressure


i. Sunshine

Sunshine refers to the sun’s rays that reach the surface of the earth.

           Importance of Sunshine:

The sun’s energy enables plants to manufacture food through the process of photosysnthesisPeople need sunshine to dry their crops, food like cassava, millet, maize and fishThey also use sunshine to warm themselves

Dries clothes after washing them

ii. Temperature

Refers to how hot or cold an object or place is.
The heat in the atmosphere is supplied by th sun

Importance of Temperature:
  • Warm is essential for plant and animal survival
  • Plants need warm in order to manufacture their fool
  •  Facilitates formation of clouds

iii. Humidity

Is the amount of water vapor(moisture) in the atmosphere
There are two types of humidity:

a) Absolute humidity and

b) Relative humidity

Absolute humidity:

Is the actual amount of water vapor or moisture in a given volume of air at a particular temperature.

Relative humidity:

    Is the ratio of the actual amount of water vapor or moisture in a given volume of air (i.e. absolute humidity) to the maximum amount of water vapor that the same volume of air can hold at the same temperature.

iv. Cloud cover

Clouds are masses of tiny droplets of water or ice particles or both which are suspended in the atmosphere.
They are formed when water vapor or moisture in the atmosphere cools and condenses.

Importance of cloud cover:

    Are important because they condense to form rain and other forms of precipitation.

v. Precipitation

This refers as the fall or deposition of moisture water vapor or frozen water from the atmosphere onto the earths surface.

Importance of Precipitation:

All life on the earth is purely dependent on moisture provided through precipitationThe importance of rain is that,  rain provides water for plants to grow (i.e. water for irrigation, growth of grass and pasture depend on rain)Also animals too need water to drink and human needs for domestic and industrial uses.


Excess rain and rainstorms result in disasters due to flooding

vi. Wind

   Wind is air in motion. It is made up of variety of gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Wind move horizontally from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

Importance of wind:

They are important in many aspects of weather for instance they cause flow of heat and moisture  and their transfer from one point to another and are also responsible for the movement of clouds.

Wind direction and wind speed or velocity are two important aspects in geography. Wind direction is important because it help us to understand characteristics of the particular winds in terms of temperature and moisture content.

Wind speed or velocity determines wind strength or force and therefore determines weather conditions of a place.

Example, When strong winds blow over a place, little or no rainfall will be experienced.

vii. Atmospheric Pressure

This is the force at a point on the earth’s surface due to the weight of air above that point. The atmosphere is the air surrounding earth’s surface and it has weight, which is force with which it presses down on a unit area. The weight of atmosphere on the earth’s surface and at sea level at 1033.3g/cm2

-Areas of very low pressure cause feeling of weightlessness and that is the feeling one gets when he or she is on top of a very high mountain like Mt Kilimanjaro.

-Areas under very low pressure may experience very strong winds periodically as air flows into such areas from high pressure regions.


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