• Sokoto Jihads were largely to do with intellectualism where Uthuman Danfordio, his brother Abdallah and his son Ahmed Bello acted as idealists, historians, writers and thinkers. This was not the case with other Jihads that emphasized warfare and not even any intellectual components.

  •  In Sokoto Jihads after the success of the movement, Uthuman retired from the tedious struggle of the war and politics. He resorted to writing and instructing of officials for the caliphate on the other hand, other Jihadists like Al Hajji Umar never retired but kept on fighting in Tokolor until his death.
  • The Sokoto Jihadists urged that war might be a necessary evil but peace was an essential requirement for the society reformation yet other Jihads especially Tokolor Jihads believed in minister rather than an intellectual approach.
  • Uthuman was more concerned with Jihads being organised according to the strict teachings and dictates of Sharia and the people had to follow the same principles yet other Jihadists had their men thinking of only an action which no intellectual approach.

  • Uthuman differed from both Umar and Sekou in that he was not a military leader of the Sokoto Jihad movement; he was just a scholar who was guiding in the background during the war.
  •  The administrative system of Maccina and Tokolor Jihads collapsed at the entry of colonialism in West Africa. Yet the administrative system in Sokoto lived and survived colonial pressure for quite a long time.  The British appreciated the high level of organization in Sokoto and they subsequently offered the use of Amirs as their indirect ruled as administrative agents in the region e.g. in Northern Nigeria (KANO).
  • The Jihads took place at different time of history although they refered to them as the 19th Jihads of West Africa, i.e. the Jihads in Sokoto waged by Uthuman took place around 1806, yet other Jihads took place at around 1818 as Tokolor 1854.
  • Uthuman’s Jihads took place in Hausland in a very big geographical entry (Hausaland has over 18 states). Yet the other Jihads like Maccina, and Tokolor were in their respective states.

  • The Jihads of Sokoto were influenced by Uthuman’s teacher Jibril  bin Umar, yet  the Jihads of Sekous were influenced by those of Uthuman and then Tokolor influenced by events in Egypt and Saud Arabia where Al Hajji Umar learned lessons which were to help him create a modern Tokolor state.
  • The Sokoto Jihad of Uthuman Danfordio were aided by Fulani to attain victory yet the Jihads like that of Tokolor were supported by the Futa tora people.
  • The Malikite school of law (Thoughts was the basis of legal interpretation of Sharia in the theocratic states, especially Sokoto. However, the Hambalite school of Islamic Jurisprudence gave the interpretation of Sharia in Tokolor. However later after some time, Al Hajji Umar dropped his Hambalite stead due to lack of literature and scholars adapted the Malikite School of law.   
  • The Tokolor Jihas took place in Tokolo while the Sokoto Jihads took place in Hausaland.
  • The Sokoto Jihads put their faith in educating the masses and not the use of the word to change the society, yet other Jihads like Tokolor believed in war and force.


  • All aimed at reforming and propagating Islam
  • All Jihads subsequently led to the establishment of Islamic theocratic states in West Africa such as Maccina, Tokolor, Sokoto were Sharia was administered.
  • All were influenced by the teachings of Jibril bin Umar. Jibril’s work was popular to the Hausaland, Maccina, Tokolor.  Therefore Ahmed Sekou’s Jihads were under Uthuman’s influence, Al Hajji Umar was a student of Uthuman and Uthurman was a student of Jibril bin Umar who published a lot of literature on Islamic movements.
  • All fought the corrupt political structure and they replaced them which constitutional laws attached to Sharia.
  • All were influenced by Suffi orders e.g. Qudiriyah brotherhood movement led by Sokoto  Tokolor led the Tijjaniyah brotherhood etc.

  • All these religious movements resulted in the creation of uniform of administrative system e.g. all these empires created Khadhi were emirs, consultative councils were initiated.
  • All empires were destroyed by European Imperialism e.g.. British Colonialism emerged in Nigeria, in Maccina, the French conquered of place and introduced their French assimilation policy.   
  • Tribalism was all arise very instrumental in leading to the victory of all the leaders of the Jihads e.g. they were Fulani’s and several Fulani followed and supported them.
  • All the Jihads prepared their followers with resistance against colonialism although colonialism was more powerful, it’s on record that Muslims in Sokoto, Maccina, and Tokolor resisted colonial occupation thus the Jihads developed African Nationalism. 
  • All the leaders of these Jihads were respected Muslim scholars, who had obtained knowledge e.g.. Uthuman was a sheikh and was too Ahmed Sekou, Haji Umar who knew Islam preached it and taught people.
  • All these Jihads helped to spread Islam to several areas e.g. Ghana (Gold coast).  This was the help of Sokoto Jihads   Mandes, Temere etc in Sierra leone  was due to Maccina  and Tokolor Jihads.

  • All took place in 19th Century that is why they are called the 19th Jihads.
  • All boosted education, research and development since they aimed at teaching true Islam.  Many moved to Madarases, Monastries to learn true Islam.  Many scholars even came to West Africa after their studies.
  • All received external support e.g. Ahmed Sekou a military general gave support to the Jihads of Sokoto, Tihaniyyah moved to Sokoto Jihads to support the Hajj Umar Jihads.


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