10 CONSQUENCES OF THE RWANDAN REVOLUTION 1959

10 CONSQUENCES OF THE RWANDAN REVOLUTION 1959
  • The revolution led to the downfall of the Tutsi monarchy. After the death of Umwami Mutara III in July 1959, Umwami Kigeri was declared the successor. However with the Hutu uprising Kigeri fled to exile and the provisional government was organized by the Belgians led by the Hutu that is Habyarimana as the President and Kaibanda as Prime minister. In 1962 presidential elections the Hutus were victorious with Kaibanda as the first president of the Republic of Rwanda.




  • The revolution led to a refugee crisis. It was a period of anarchy and chaos as many Tutsis were executed. As a result many Tutsis fled to neighboring countries like Uganda, Burundi, Zaire, Kenya and others fled to Europe. Therefore becoming refugees leading to suffering of many hutus from problems such as starvation and poor health.
  • The revolution led to the 1961 referendum, Rwandese were to choose on either monarchism or Republicanism; the result showed the love for a Republic and consequently the republican constitution was put in place which was approved by the UN in 1961.
  • The revolution increased population in the neighboring states. It is no doubt that what was a Rwandan domestic matter of 1959 later turned a burden to the neighbors. As a result through the UNHCR refugee camps were set up for the Tutsi like Nakivale in western Uganda.




  • The revolution largely contributed to the rise and fall of many governments in the neighboring countries for example the Tutsi joined NRA of Uganda and over threw Obote II government in 1985 which was replaced by General Okello Lutwa’s government which was short lived and in 1986 on 26th January Museveni’s NRA government rose to a position of prominence. Like wise the Rwandese Militia supported Kabira to topple the government of Joseph Mubutu of Congo.
  • Dictatorial rule emerged in Rwanda, in order to consolidate himself Kaibanda ordered massive arrests of the opposition, massive killings and banned political party activities. Rwanda then became a one party state under M.R.N.D (Movement for the Restoration of National Development).
  • The revolution gave rise to several rebel groups based in the neighboring countries against the real organized Rwandan government, the Tutsis used the neighboring countries as bases for example RPF (Rwanda Patriotic Front) based in Uganda, Enterahamwe and Banyamulenge based In Congo, the Enyenzi based in Burundi all these worked to destabilize the Hutu government.




  • The revolution heightened ethnic tension between the Tutsis and the Hutus when Kaibanda came to power he discriminated the Tutsis murdered them and imprisoned them. Again when Juvenile Habyarimana came to power in 1973 he did the same; as a result the Tutsis under General Fred Rwijema fought and over threw the Hutu government in 1994. This led to the famous Rwandan genocide where about a million people perished.
  • The Hutu government reconstructed the Rwandan army, many Tutsi army leaders were arrested and others replaced by the Hutus. However this was aimed at consolidating the Hutus in government however promotions were on merit but in the Hutu circles.
  • The revolution weakened neo-colonialism in Rwanda, after independence the Hutu dismissed the Belgians and the French from the politics of Rwanda and real independence was achieved.
  • The revolution sparked off the reign of instability ever since 1959 Rwanda had been under going a series of attacks for example Enyenzi attacked Rwanda from Burundi in 1963, another attack was in 1973 where Kaibanda died and many other attacks were carried out even after 1994 against Kagame’s government.




  • The revolution led to the rise of Juvenile Habyarimana as president of Rwanda, when Gregory Kaibanda became president on independence and the army commander at the rank of General, whatever transpired negative was blamed on Kaibanda for example the killing the too many Hutu civilians, Habyarimana took advantage of such disorders to over throw Kaibanda in a military coup, killed him and assumed presidency in 1973. However he also crashed in a Plane in 1994.
  • The revolution gave birth to guerilla activities in Uganda and Burundi. Following the Hutu victory, the Tutsi nationalists who could not believe their fall formed a guerilla movement known as the Cockroach movement based in Burundi. By 1963 the Movement had started launching attacks onto the Hutu government in an attempt to carry out a coup.
  • On the positive note since the Tutsi were cattle keepers, they moved with large herds to Uganda they flooded Ntugamo, Kisoro, Mbarara, Kumi, Bushenyi, soroti, Gulu and added wealth to those parts of Uganda.




  • The mass exodus of refugees in Uganda led to severe relations between the Ugandan government and Rwanda. The climax of this is that it is alleged Uganda was directly involved in the death of Habyarimana and the invasion by over time refugees was based in Uganda.

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