Types of African reactions exhibited against European colonization

The following are types of African reactions exhibited against European colonization.

African reaction to foreign invasion could be classified into:

Resistance, whereby African communities such as the Nandi, Ndebele, Mandinka, Pogoro and Giriama refused to cooperate with the invaders.

Collaboration, whereby certain African communities like the Lozi, Baganda, Creoles, Wanga and Maasai cooperated with the foreigners.

Mixed Reaction whereby some African communities E.G. the Luo and the Agikuyu gave a dual reaction I.E. some of them resisted as others collaborated with the foreigners.

two types of African resistance against European colonization

There were two forms of resistance. These were:

Active resistance that is, the use of weapons by Africans to fight foreigners and to prevent them from establishing colonial rule over them. Most African groups E.G. those of southern Tanganyika, the Nandi of Kenya, the Mandinka and the Ndebele actively resisted European colonization.

Passive resistance I.E. deliberate adoption of a noncooperative approach with the colonizers but devoid of (without) violence. Using this method, some communities
refused to work on European farms or to pay taxes as directed by the Europeans.

For instance, the Pogoro of Tanganyika refused to pick cotton while the Giriama of Kenya refused to provide young men to fight in the First World War.