- They were divided into two groups, i.e. the Pastoral Purko Maasai and the agricultural Kwavi Maasai.
- They were divided into five clans.
- They circumcised both boys and girls at puberty, upon which the initiates entered an ageset.
- he initiated young men joined the warrior class: the Moran. The Moran lived in special Manyattas and were not allowed to marry until they became junior elders.
- They had diviners and medicine people.
- By the 19th century, the Purko Maasai had created the office of the Oloibon (ritual leader), who officiated at religious ceremonies.
- They believed in the existence of and worshipped one God (Enkai).
- Among the most important ceremonies was the Eunto, which marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders.
- The largest political unit was the tribal section, regarded as the geographical nation.
- The Age-set spokesmen handled affairs involving interclan cooperation.
- Each clan was administered by a council of elders chosen because of their outstanding military performance and because of their senior position in the community.
- The Morans defended the community and conducted raids.
- A military leader led the warriors during war.
- Junior elders dealt with day to day issues and maintained peace.
- Senior elders handled the difficult judicial and political decisions.
- By the end of the 19th century, the Oloibon (religious leader) had acquired political power.