the following are Social challenges that have faced African states since independence.
- Inaccessibility to clean water by majority of the people. Most African peoples rely on water fetched from sometimes contaminated streams across long distances.
- The challenge of HIV/AIDS pandemic. This has had a toll on productive members of the society.
- Poor housing facilities.. in urban areas, majority of the population live in slums without sanitation facilities.
- The challenge of high population growth rate. This affects the quality of the services provided by governments.
- Language problem. Language development and use has been a challenge in Africa. In many countries, conflict tends to arise over the language to adopt- local or the inherited one.
- Religious differences. This challenge has been the main cause of the splitting of the once largest country in Africa-Sudan in 2011. The predominantly Christian southern Sudan has become the youngest African state thanks to religious differences.
- Absence of practical systems of education. Many countries rely on theoretical education with little emphasis in technical skills.