The following are factors that led to the migration of the Highland Nilotes into Kenya
- Search for cultivable land as well as pasture and water for their livestock.
- Drought, famine and other natural calamities.
- Rapid population increase.
- Diseases and epidemics, which afflicted both people and livestock.
- Internal conflicts and rivalries. For instance, the Karamojong and Turkana exerted pressure on other groups, such as the Iteso.
- Pressure or attacks from hostile neighbouring communities.
- Adventure and desire for loot and plunder.