SOUTH AFRICA DEPARTMENT OF BASIC EDUCATION GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM GRADES 10-12

The Structure of the Earth




Plate Tectonics

  • changes in the position of continents over time;
  • evidence for the movement of continents over time;
  • plate tectonics – an explanation for the movement of continents;
  • the mechanics of plate movements;
  • processes and landforms associated with different kinds of plate boundaries; and
  • the world’s volcanic and earthquake zones.

Folding and Faulting

Earthquakes

  • how and where earthquakes occur;
  • the relationship between earthquakes and tectonic forces;
  • measuring and predicting earthquakes;
  • how earthquakes and tsunamis affect people and settlements – differences in vulnerability;
  • strategies to reduce the impact of earthquakes; and
  • case examples of the effects of selected earthquakes.

Volcanoes

  • types of volcanoes: extrusive, intrusive, active, dormant and extinct;
  • structure of volcanoes;
  • impact of volcanoes on people and the environment: positive and negative; and
  • case studies of different volcanic eruptions.




GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES (applied to above topics)
Mapwork Skills [2 hours]
• locating exact position: degrees, minutes and seconds; and
• scale: word, ratio, fraction and line scale.
Topographic Maps [4 hours]
• South African 1:50 000 map referencing system;
• 1: 50 000 maps: conventional signs and symbols;
• navigating position using compass directions (16 points);
• direction: true and magnetic bearing;
• landforms and contours; and
• simple cross-sections.
Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps [2 hours]
• photographs of landscapes;
• oblique and vertical aerial photos; and
• orthophoto maps to be used in conjunction with 1:50 000 maps and aerial photos.
Using Atlases [2 hours]
• atlas index – locating physical and constructed features;
• four-digit grid reference (latitude and longitude, degrees and minutes) to identify and locate features on maps; and
• map projections: examples of equal area and true direction projections – critical evaluation




GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE
Population Distribution and Density [4 hours]
• meaning of population distribution and population density;
• world population density and distribution; and
• factors that affect the distribution and density of the world’s population.
Population Structure [4 hours]
• population indicators: birth rates, death rates, life expectancy, fertility rate, and natural increase;
• factors that influence population indicators; and
• population structure: age and sex, represented as population pyramids.
Population Growth (Using case studies from around the world is essential) [6 hours]
• world population growth over time;
• demographic transition model;
• concept of overpopulation; and
• managing population growth.
Population Movements (Using cases studies to illustrate topics below is essential)[8 hours]
• kinds of population movement: international migration, emigration, immigration;
• regional migration, rural-urban migration, urbanization, voluntary and forced migration;
• causes and effects of population movements;
• temporary and permanent movements including migrant labour, economic migrants, political migrants, and refugees;
• attitudes to migrants and refugees.
HIV and AIDS [4 hours]
• HIV infection rates in southern Africa;
• social and economic effects of HIV and AIDS, using specific examples from the southern African region; and
• the impact of HIV and AIDS on population structure.




Water in the World [2 hours]
• different forms of water in the world: liquid, solid, and gas;
the hydrological cycle.
• occurrence of salt water and fresh water: oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater and atmosphere; and
The World’s Oceans [4 hours]
• oceans as sources of oxygen, food and energy;
• ocean circulation – warm and cold currents;
• ocean currents and their importance for fishing, trade, and tourism;
• relationship between oceans and people: pollution, overfishing and desalination; and
• strategies for managing the world’s oceans.
Water Management in South Africa [5 hours]
• rivers, lakes and dams in South Africa;
• factors influencing the availability of water in South Africa;
• challenges of providing free basic water to rural and urban communities in South Africa;
• the role of government – initiatives towards securing water: inter-basin transfers and building dams;
• role of municipalities: provision and water purification; and
• strategies towards sustainable use of water – role of government and individuals.
Floods [4 hours]
• causes of flooding – physical and human;
• characteristics of floods – analysis and interpretation of flood hydrographs;
• managing flooding in urban, rural and informal settlement areas; and
• case study of a flood in South Africa.




Topographic Maps [2 hours]
• landforms and contours.
Aerial photographs and Orthophoto Maps [2 hours]
• photographs of landscapes;
• oblique and vertical aerial photos; and
• orthophoto maps to be used in conjunction with 1:50 000 maps and aerial photos.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) [2 hours]
• GIS concepts: spatial objects, lines, points, nodes and scales.

Mapwork Skills [4 hours]
• locating exact position: degrees, minutes and seconds;
• relative position: direction and magnetic bearing;
• scale: word, ratio and line scale;
• distance: measuring distances and converting to ground distance, straight line and curved (practise); and
• calculating area: regular and irregular.
1:50 000 Topographic Maps [8 hours]
• contours and landforms;
• cross-sections on 1:50 000 topographic maps;
• vertical exaggeration;
• intervisibility; and
• gradient.
Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps [4 hours]
• oblique and vertical aerial photographs – identifying landforms and features;
• use of tone, texture and shadow in the interpretation of photos;
• orthophoto maps – identifying features; and
• orienting aerial photographs and orthophoto maps with another map.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) [4 hours]
• spatially referenced data;
• spatial and spectral resolution;
• different types of data: line, point, area and attribute;
• raster and vector data;
• application of GIS to climatology and meteorology, as well as oceanography, using satellite images; and
• capturing different types of data from existing maps, photographs, fieldwork or other records on tracing paper.
Using Atlases (revision) [2 hours]
• using the index;
• locating places on different maps, using degrees and minutes; and
• comparing information from different maps.
Fieldwork [2 hours]
• observation;
• collecting and recording data; and
• processing, collating and presenting fieldwork findings




The Earth’s Energy Balance [4 hours]
• the unequal heating of the atmosphere – latitudinal and seasonal;
• significance of Earth’s axis and revolution around the Sun; and
• transfer of energy and energy balance – role of ocean currents and winds.

Global Air Circulation

  • global air circulation – a response to the unequal heating of the atmosphere;
  • world pressure belts;
  • tri-cellular circulation: Hadley, Ferrel and polar cells;
  • the relationships between air temperature, air pressure and wind;
  • pressure gradient, Coriolis force and geostrophic flow;
  • winds related to global air circulation: westerlies, tropical easterlies and polar easterlies;
  • air mass characteristics; and
  • winds related to regional and local air movements: Monsoons and Föhn.




Africa’s Weather and Climate

  • Africa’s climate regions;
  • subsidence and convergence – link to rainfall;
  • the role of oceans in climate control in Africa;
  • El Niño and La Niña processes and their effects on Africa’s climate; and
  • reading and interpreting synoptic weather maps.

Droughts and Desertification

  • areas at risk: regional and local scales;
  • causes of droughts;
  • causes of desertification;
  • effects of droughts and desertification on people and the environment, such as differences in vulnerability; and
  • management strategies – case studies.

Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps

  • oblique and vertical aerial photographs – identifying landforms and features;
  • use of tone, texture and shadow in the interpretation of photos;
  • orthophoto maps – identifying features; and
  • orienting aerial photographs and orthophoto maps with another map.

Geographical and Information Systems (GIS)

  • satellite images; and
  • application of GIS to climatology and meteorology.

Topography Associated with Horizontally Layered Rocks




  • characteristics and processes associated with the development of: hilly landscapes, basaltic plateaus, canyon landscapes and Karoo landscapes (mesa, butte and conical hill);
  • concept of scarp retreat or back wasting; and
  • utilization of these landscapes by people.

Topography Associated with Inclined/Tilted Rock Strata

  • characteristics and processes associated with the development of: a scarp slope, a dip slope, a cuesta, homoclinal ridge, hogsback, cuesta basin and cuesta dome; and
  • utilization of these landscapes by people.

Topography Associated with Massive Igneous Rocks

  • identification of batholiths, laccoliths, lopoliths, dykes and sills; and
  • characteristics and processes associated with the development of granite domes and tors.

Slopes




  • overview of South Africa’s topography;
  • types of slopes;
  • slope elements: crest, cliff (scarp slope, free face), talus (debris, scree slope), and pediment;
  • characteristics of the slope elements: crest, cliff, talus and pediment;
  • slope development over time; and
  • the concept of slope retreat.

Mass Movements and Human Responses

  • concept of mass movements;
  • kinds of mass movements: soil creep, solifluction, landslides, rockfalls and mudflows, and slumps;
  • the impact of mass movements on people and the environment; and
  • strategies to prevent or minimise the effects of mass movement – South African case studies.

Topographic Maps

  • contours and landforms;
  • cross-sections on 1:50 000 topographic maps;
  • vertical exaggeration;
  • intervisibility; and
  • gradient.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

  • spatially referenced data;
  • spatial and spectral resolution;
  • different types of data: line, point, area and attribute;
  • raster and vector data; and
  • capturing different types of data from existing maps, photographs, fieldwork or other records on tracing paper.




Fieldwork

  • observation;
  • collecting and recording data; and
  • processing, collating and presenting fieldwork findings.

The Concept of Development

  • terminology associated with development, such as developed, developing, more economically developed countries (MEDCs) and less economically developed countries (LEDCs), and industrialised countries;
  • the concept of development: economic, social, sustainable, appropriate scale and spatial aspects;
  • economic, social and demographic indicators of development: GNP, GDP, HDI Gini-coefficient, life expectancy and infant mortality; and
  • examples to illustrate differences in development from local, regional, and global contexts.

Frameworks for development




  • factors that affect development, including: access to resources, energy, history, trade imbalances, population growth, education and training, natural resource limitations and environmental degradation (note: learners need to explore the complexity and inter-related nature of these factors);
  • development models: free market models, such as Rostow’s model with its limitations and criticisms, core and periphery models with their application at different scales; sustainability models with their economic, social, and environmental elements; and
  • community-based development, including approaches to rural and urban development (with examples from around the world).

Trade and Development

  • international trade and world markets: commodities traded and terms of trade;
  • types of trading relationships, including: free trade, trade barriers, subsidies and fair trade;
  • the concept of globalisation and its impact on development; and
  • export-led development – critically examined (with examples from around the world).




Development Issues and Challenges

  • the role of women in development: gender issues related to power, access to resources and attitudes;
  • the effect of development on the environment;
  • the role of the state and business in development in South Africa, including central control by the state, weak state control and public private partnerships.

Role of Development Aid

  • concept of development aid and development co-operation;
  • types of development aid – technical, conditional, humanitarian; and
  • impact of aid on development (including case studies of development aid – positive and negative).

Mapwork Skills (with reference to 1:50 000 topographic maps)

  • locating exact position: degrees, minutes and seconds;
  • relative position: direction and magnetic bearing;
  • scale: word, ratio and line scale;
  • Distance: measuring distances and converting to ground distance along a straight line (practice)
  • calculating area.

Using Atlases (revision)

  • using the index;
  • locating places on different maps using degrees and minutes; and
  • comparing information from different maps.




Using Resources

  • the relationship between resources and economic development;
  • exploitation and depletion of resources; and
  • concepts of sustainability and sustainable use of resources.

Soil and Soil Erosion

  • how soils are formed;
  • soil as a resource;
  • causes of soil erosion: human, animal, physical, and past and present;
  • evidence of soil erosion in South Africa;
  • effects of soil erosion on people and the environment; and
  • management strategies to prevent and control soil erosion.

Conventional Energy Sources and their Impact on the Environment

  • maps and graphs to show thermal, hydro, and nuclear energy production in South Africa;
  • thermal electricity generation using coal – outline of principles and processes;
  • the impact of coal mining and thermal power stations – environmental despoliation, solid waste, waste gases and acid rain;
  • case study of nuclear energy – advantages and disadvantages; and
  • South Africa’s potential to meet long-term energy needs using conventional sources.




Non-conventional Energy Sources

  • solar energy – examples from South Africa and the world;
  • wind energy – examples from South Africa and the world;
  • future of non-conventional energy in South Africa; and
  • possible effects of using more non-conventional energy on the South African economy and the environment.

Energy Management in South Africa

  • South Africa’s changing energy needs;
  • energy management, towards greener economies and sustainable lifestyles: responsibilities of governments, businesses and individuals.

Mapwork Techniques (revision and application)

  • applying map skills and techniques: scale, contours and cross-sections;
  • direction: magnetic north, true north and magnetic declination;
  • grid referencing;
  • map and photo interpretation, including: reading and analysis of physical and constructed features; and
  • using maps and other graphical representations: synoptic weather maps and temperature graphs.




Topographic Maps (revision and application)

  • 1: 50 000 maps: conventional signs and symbols;
  • contours and landforms;
  • cross-sections on 1:50 000 maps;
  • vertical exaggeration;
  • intervisibility; and
  • gradient.

Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps

  • interpreting vertical aerial photographs;
  • orthophoto maps – identifying features; and
  • comparing an orthophoto map with a topographic map.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

  • examination of a selection of satellite images;
  • GIS concepts: remote sensing and resolution;
  • spatial and attribute data; vector and raster data;
  • data standardisation, data sharing and data security;
  • data manipulation: data integration, buffering, querying and statistical analysis;
  • application of GIS techniques to a range of topics covered in Grade 12; and
  • developing a “paper GIS” from existing maps, photographs or other records on tracing paper.

Using Atlases (revision and application)

  • examining thematic maps; and
  • comparing information from different maps

Mid-latitude Cyclones




  • general characteristics;
  • areas where mid-latitude cyclones form;
  • conditions necessary for their formation;
  • stages of development and related weather conditions;
  • weather patterns associated with cold, warm, and occluded fronts; and
  • reading and interpreting satellite images and synoptic weather maps.

Tropical Cyclones

  • general characteristics;
  • areas where tropical cyclones form;
  • factors necessary for their formation;
  • stages of development;
  • associated weather patterns;
  • reading and interpreting satellite images and synoptic weather maps;
  • case study of one recent tropical cyclone that affected southern Africa;
  • impact of tropical cyclones on human activities and the environment; and
  • strategies that help to prepare for and manage the effects of tropical cyclones.

Subtropical Anticyclones and Associated Weather Conditions

  • location of the high-pressure cells that affect South Africa;
  • general characteristics of these high-pressure cells;
  • anticyclonic air circulation around South Africa, and its influence on weather and climate;
  • travelling disturbances associated with anticyclonic circulation: moisture front, line thunderstorms, coastal low pressure systems and South African berg winds; and
  • reading and interpreting satellite images and synoptic weather maps that illustrate weather associated with subtropical anticyclonic conditions.

Valley Climates

  • the micro-climate of valleys (the effect of the slope aspect);
  • development of anabatic and katabatic winds, inversions, frost pockets and radiation fog; and
  • the influence of local climates on human activities such as settlement and farming.




Urban Climates

  • reasons for differences between rural and urban climates;
  • urban heat islands – causes and effects;
  • concept of pollution domes – causes and effects; and
  • strategies to reduce the heat island effect.

Drainage Systems in South Africa

  • important concepts: drainage basin, catchment area, river system, watershed, tributary, river mouth, source, confluence, water table, surface run-off and groundwater;
  • types of rivers: permanent, periodic, episodic and exotic;
  • drainage patterns: dendritic, trellis, rectangular, radial, centripetal, deranged and parallel;
  • drainage density;
  • use of topographic maps to identify stream order and density; and
  • discharge of a river: laminar and turbulent flow.

Fluvial Processes

  • river profiles: transverse profile, longitudinal profile and their relationship to different stages of a river:
  • identification and description of fluvial landforms: meanders, oxbow lakes, braided streams, floodplain, natural leveé, waterfall, rapids and delta;
  • river grading;
  • rejuvenation of rivers: reasons and resultant features, such as knick point, terraces and incised meanders;
  • river capture (stream piracy): the concepts of abstraction and river capture; features associated with river capture (captor stream, captured stream, misfit stream, elbow of capture, wind gap); and
  • superimposed and antecedent drainage patterns.

Catchment and River Management




  • importance of managing drainage basins and catchment areas;
  • impact of people on drainage basins and catchment areas; and
  • case study of one catchment area management strategy in South Africa.

Mapwork Techniques

  • Reading and interpreting synoptic weather maps, satellite images and other weather and climate-related data;
  • map and photo interpretation – includes reading and analysis of physical and constructed features; and
  • applying map-reading skills to maps and photos.

Topographic Maps

  • contours and landforms;
  • cross sections;
  • direction: magnetic north, true north and magnetic declination;
  • gradient;
  • intervisibility; and
  • grid referencing.

Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps




  • interpreting vertical aerial photographs;
  • orthophoto maps – identifying features; and
  • comparing an orthophoto map with a topographic map.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

  • examination of GIS information for different catchment areas; and
  • developing a “paper GIS” from existing maps, photographs or other records on tracing paper.

Study of Settlements

  • concept of settlement;
  • site and situation;
  • rural and urban settlements; and
  • settlement classification according to size, complexity, pattern and function.

Rural Settlements

  • how site and situation affect the location of rural settlements;
  • classification of rural settlements according to pattern and function;
  • reasons for different shapes of settlements: round, linear, T-shaped and cross-road; and
  • land use in rural settlements.




Rural Settlement Issues

  • rural-urban migration;
  • causes and consequences of rural depopulation on people and the economy;
  • case study that illustrates the effects of rural depopulation and strategies to address them; and
  • social justice issues in rural areas, such as access to resources and land reform.

Urban Settlements

  • the origin and development of urban settlements – urbanisation of the world’s population;
  • how site and situation affect the location of urban settlements; and
  • classification of urban settlements according to function, such as central places, trade and transport, break of bulk points, specialised cities, junction towns and gateway towns or gap towns.




Urban Hierarchies

  • the concepts of urban hierarchy, central place, threshold population, the sphere of influence and range of goods;
  • lower and higher-order functions and services; and
  • lower and higher-order centres.

Urban Structure and Patterns

  • internal structure and patterns of urban settlements: land use zones; the concept of the urban profile; and factors influencing the morphological structure of a city;
  • models of urban structure, such as the multiple-nuclei model, the modern American-western city, the Third World city and the South African city; and
  • changing urban patterns and land use in South African cities.

Urban Settlement Issues




  • recent urbanisation patterns in South Africa;
  • urban issues related to rapid urbanisation: lack of planning, housing shortage, overcrowding, traffic congestion and problems with service provision;
  • the growth of informal settlements and associated issues: case studies from the world and South Africa; and
  • case studies that show how selected urban areas in South Africa are managing urban challenges, and handling environmental, economic, and social justice concerns.

Mapwork Skills

  • applying map skills and techniques: scale, contours and cross-sections; and
  • map and photo interpretation: including reading and analysis of physical and constructed features.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

  • GIS concepts: remote-sensing and resolution;
  • spatial and attribute data; vector and raster data;
  • data standardisation, data sharing and data security;
  • data manipulation: data integration, buffering, querying and statistical analysis; application of GIS by government and the private sector, relate to weather and settlement topics above;
  • developing a “paper GIS” from existing maps, photographs or other records on layers of tracing paper.




Structure of the Economy

  • economic sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary);
  • economic sectors’ contribution to the South African economy: value and employment; and
  • use of statistical and graphical information.

Agriculture

  • contribution of agriculture to the South African economy;
  • the role of small-scale farmers and large-scale farmers;
  • main products produced: home market and export market;
  • factors that favour and hinder agriculture in South Africa, such as climate, soil, land ownership and trade;
  • the importance of food security in South Africa – influencing factors; and
  • case studies related to food security in South Africa.

Mining

  • contribution of mining to the South African economy;
  • significance of mining to the development of South Africa;
  • factors that favour and hinder mining in South Africa; and
  • a case study of one of South Africa’s main minerals in relation to the above points.

Secondary and Tertiary Sectors

  • contribution of secondary and tertiary sectors to the South African economy;
  • types of industries, such as heavy, light, raw material orientated, market-orientated, footloose industries, ubiquitous industries and bridge (break of the bulk point) industries;
  • factors influencing industrial development in South Africa, such as raw materials, labour supply, transport infrastructure, political intervention, competition and trade; and
  • South Africa’s industrial regions Gauteng (PWV), Durban-Pinetown, Port Elizabeth-Uitenhage, South-western Cape
  • factors influencing their location
  • main industrial activities.(Case studies from South Africa to illustrate the above)




Strategies for Industrial Development

  • overview of apartheid and post-apartheid industrial development strategies;
  • concept and distribution of Industrial Development Zones (IDZs);
  • case studies of two Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs); and
  • issues associated with industrial centralisation and decentralisation.

Informal Sector

  • concept and characteristics of informal sector employment;
  • reasons for high informal sector employment in South Africa;
  • challenges facing South Africa’s informal sector
  • (Case studies to illustrate the above in the South African context)

Geographical Information Systems (GIS)




  • examination of a selection of satellite images;
  • GIS concepts: remote sensing and resolution;
  • spatial and attribute data; vector and raster data;
  • data standardisation, data sharing and data security;
  • data manipulation: data integration, buffering, querying and statistical analysis; and
  • developing a “paper GIS” from existing maps, photographs or other records on tracing paper

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