Wildlife management is effective planning and control of wildlife while wildlife conservation is the protection of wildlife against interference and destruction by people.
Wild life Management and conservation measures
- Educating people through print and electronic media on the need to preserve wildlife.
- Establishing wildlife clubs in schools to create awareness on the importance of wildlife conservation.
- Formation of wildlife conservation bodies e.g. Kenya Wildlife Service charged with management and conservation of wildlife.
- Initiating game ranching or wildlife farms to control overexploitation of wildlife resources from the natural habitats.
- Culling of old animals to give room for the younger ones and to control the animal numbers.
- Translocation of animals whose population increases beyond the capacity of park to other parks where their number is small to prevent the problem of overgrazing.
- Encouraging of domestic tourism by lowering entry fee into parks to help people to appreciate the value of wildlife and thus accept conserving it.
Significance of Wildlife
- Tourist attraction which brings foreign exchange and revenue for the government by paying entry fee to the national parks and reserves.
- Wildlife conservation has led to proper utilisation of marginal areas of marginal areas where crop growing is difficult due to unreliable rainfall.
- Creates employment for people raising their standards of living e.g. game rangers, tourist guides and drivers and workers in tourist hotels.
- Wildlife preservation helps to preserve and protect water catchment areas and soil and also modifies the climate resulting in increased rainfall.
- A source of food e.g. animals meet and honey from bees.
- Wild plants such as Muarobaini are used as a source of medicine.
- It has led to development of industries by providing raw materials e.g. trees provide timber used in the building and construction industry.
- It has led to development of infrastructure when good roads are built to make Game Parks more accessible to tourists.
- It has diversified the economic base of East African countries instead of relying on agriculture as a major source of revenue
Differences between game management and Game Park are:
- Game management area has people living in as well as people
- Game park is a place reserved only for animals
- A game management has few animals as compared to a game park
- A game management has a small area while a game park has a big area
- In a game management hunting is allowed while in a game park it is not allowed
Problems Facing Wildlife in East Africa
- Poaching which is likely to bring rare species of animals to extinction e.g. rhinos and elephants.
- Adverse climatic conditions which causes death of some animals due to shortage of water and pasture.
- Floods which drown animals and destroy plants depriving animals of pasture.
- Bush fires which destroy large tracts of land and kill animals which may cause extinction of rare species and expose land to agents of erosion.
- Overgrazing by high population of herbivores resulting in destruction of vegetation which exposes land to agents of erosion destroying habitats of animals causing them to migrate to areas with adequate pasture.
- Wildlife-human conflict where by pastoralists kills carnivores which kill their livestock.
- Pests and diseases such as Feline Immunodeficiency Virus which threatens to reduce the lion population in many parts of Africa.
- Human activities e.g.
- Overgrazing by livestock where grazing is allowed leading to destruction of the natural habitat for wildlife.
- Destruction of vegetation by tourists vehicles which reduces the amount of food for browsing animals.
- Encroachment of land which was formerly reserved for wildlife by clearing land for settlement and agriculture which has led to killing of animals.
- Overfishing which threatens the survival of certain species of fish and other marine life.
- Environmental pollution such as release of sewage from lodges which pollutes the water leading to the poisoning of animals which drink it e.g. at L. Nakuru where it has led to
- the death of flamingos and noise pollution from vehicles and people which disturbs animals making them unable to feed well.