Soil erosion involves three distinct actions – soil detachment, movement, and deposition.
Topsoil, which is high in organic matter, fertility, and soil life, is relocated elsewhere “on-site” where it builds up over time or is carried “off-site” where it fills in drainage channels.
Soil erosion reduces cropland productivity and contributes to the pollution of adjacent watercourses, wetlands, and lakes.
water erosion is the result of rain detaching and transporting vulnerable soil, either directly by means of rain splash or indirectly by rill or gully erosion
The following are forms of water erosion
Rain drop or splash erosion
Erosion preceded by the destruction of the crumb structure due to the impact of a falling raindrop on the surface of the soil is termed as splash erosion.
It is the fairly uniform removal of soil in thin layers from the land surface, often scarcely perceptible, especially when caused by wind.
Areas, where loose, shallow topsoil overlies compact soil, are most susceptible to sheet erosion.
A form of water erosion in which numerous very small and more or less straight channels are produced; the channels get obliterated by ordinary use. It can be removed by normal tillage operations.
A form of water erosion in which gullies are produced by the combination of unattended rills.
Stream bank erosion
Stream banks are eroded by water either flowing over the sides of a stream or scouring at the base.
It is aggravated by the removal of vegetation, overgrazing or cultivation near the stream banks.