Doha amendment to Kyoto protocol

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1) The Kyoto Protocol signed in 1997, is an international treaty that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

2) Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations agreed to cut their greenhouse gas emissions below 1990 levels.

3) It is operational since 2005.

4) A group of rich and industrialized countries were assigned emission reduction targets with the first commitment period of 2005-2012.

5) The Doha amendment was made to Kyoto protocol in 2012 to extend the obligations of the developed countries for the second commitment period of 2012-2020.

6) It requires ratification from a total of 144 of the 192 parties of the Kyoto Protocol to become operational.

7) As only 75 countries have so far ratified the Doha amendments it could not be enforced.

8) China, Poland, Australia, Mexico, South Africa, Indonesia are some of the countries that ratified the Doha amendments.

9) India is expected to ratify it this month.

10) the US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and Canada withdrew from the Kyoto protocol in 2012.