GLACIATION: GLACIERS, TYPES OF GLACIERS AND TYPES OF MOVEMENT OF ICE

GLACIATION glaciers types of glaciers and type of movement of ice

Glaciation is action of moving ice.
Glacier is Mass of ice moving outward from an area of accumulation.

glaciers are formed when snow accumulates on the surface, lower layers are compressed to a harder mass resulting in opaque ice due to air bubbles and accumulation of continues compression lower layers squeezing out air
forming glassy ice called glacier.

Types of glaciers

  • Cirque glacier – ice occupying a cirque.
  • Valley glacier – Ice confined within a valley
  • Piedmont glacier: Glacier formed when valley glaciers converge at the foot of the mountain.
  • Ice bergs – Large mass of ice floating in the ocean formed when an ice sheet moves to the sea e.g. in Arctic and N. Atlantic Ocean.
  • Ice sheet – Continuous mass of ice covering a large area on the earth‟s surface.
  • Ice caps – Ice covering the mountain peak.
  • Snow line – Line beyond which there is a permanent snow cover.

Ways of Ice Movement

Plastic Flowage

Movement of ice like a viscous liquid.
it occurs when Great pressure is exerted at the bottom sides and centre causing some ice particles to melt slightly and move slowly down hill like a viscous liquid.

Basal Slip

Movement of ice by sliding over the underlying rock.
it occurs when Pressure is exerted on deepest layers of ice in contact with the rock beneath causing melting.
A film of water is created which acts as a lubricant between the ice and the rock causing ice to slip and slide over the rock and move down slope.

Extrusion Flow

Movement of ice by spreading out.
it occurs Ice accumulates building to great thickness at the centre causing compression of layers of ice beneath.
The layers beneath are forced to spread out where there is less pressure.

Internal Shearing

Breaking of ice into smaller pieces which move alongside one another.

it occurs when Uneven movement causes ice to develop cracks on the surface.
The glacier breaks into smaller pieces which move alongside each other down slope

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