Material carried by the glacier is called a moraine.
Types of Moraine
- Ground/sub-glacier moraine – load carried at the base of the glacier.
- Englacial moraine – load within the glacier.
- Lateral moraine – load carried at the sides of the glacier.
- Medial moraine – load carried in the centre of the valley by a glacier.
- Terminal/recessional moraine – load deposited at the point where a glacier melts.
Types of Glacial Deposits/Drift:
Till – directly deposited by ice on melting in unstratified manner.
Fluvial – materials deposited by water from the melting ice in stratified manner.
Causes of Glacial Deposition
- Amount of glacial drift When ground moraine is too much the glacier glides over it leaving it behind.
- Weight of glacier When more ice is added to a stationary glacier pressure is exerted at the base causing melting and the material which was embedded in the ice is dropped.
- Climatic change During summer and spring ice melts depositing some materials the glacier was carrying.
- Friction beneath the ice Friction between ice and surface reduces ice speed causing heavy materials to be deposited beneath ice sheets.
- Slope Lowlands allow glacier to accumulate a lot of materials which are finally deposited by melting ice.