The following are the conditions leading to the equatorial climate
- Influence of trade winds, especially the southeast trade winds which blow over the Indian Ocean causing the intertropical convergence zone leading to heavy rainfall, high humidity along the equator.
- Distance from the sea: areas near water bodies e.g. Lake Victoria and Kyoga receive heavy rains due to on-shore and off-shore breezes hence equatorial climate.
- Latitudinal location: Areas along with the equator experience hot and wet conditions due to inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) formed when winds converge at the equator blowing from different areas, especially over the Indian Ocean.
- Ocean currents especially the warm Mozambique currents that bring heavy rainfall along the equatorial belt of East Africa.
- Mans activities through afforestation & re-afforestation programs lead to the creation of green belts of vegetation leading to heavy rainfall along the equator.
- Influence of vegetation: Thick forests e.g. Mabira lead to rainfall formation through evapotranspiration.
- Savannah climate: it occurs between 5o to 15o north and south of the Equator. It’s found in the broad zone between the equatorial climate and the hot desert.