Characteristics of tropical northern climate

Characteristics of tropical northern climate

Tropical Northern Climate is experienced in a small area in the N. W part of Kenya bordering Uganda.

The following are Characteristics of tropical northern climate

  • High average temperatures.
  • Temperatures are modified in some places by altitude.
  • Low mean annual rainfall of about 850mm.
  • Rain falls mainly in June and September.
  • Experiences a long dry season of up to 6 months.

Tropical continental climate

This climate is also known as Sudan type or Savannah climate. In the interior of the continents it
is referred to as tropical continental climate.
Location: This climatic region occurs between 5oN and 15oN and 5oS and 15oS though it
extends to 25o north or south of the equator. It is best developed in most parts of Africa, and
some parts of South America, India and Australia.

Climatic characteristics

  • Hot summers (32oC) and cooler winters (21oC).
  • The annual temperature range is about 11oC.
  • The highest temperatures occur just before the rainy season begins.
  • Heavy rains, mainly convection, occur in the summer.
  • Total annual rainfall is around 765mm, though this increases in the areas lying close to the equatorial climate region. Similarly, rainfall decreases towards the tropical deserts.
  • Humidity is high during the hot, wet season.This climate is characterized by tall grass and trees which are more numerous near the equatorial forest region.

The savannah region is suitable for herbivores animals such as giraffes, elephants, buffaloes, rhinos, zebras, antelopes, wildebeests and many other animals.

There are also carnivorous animals such as lions, leopards, hyenas, etc. The region also supports a variety of species of birds, reptiles and insects.

People living in this region mainly engage in livestock keeping, cultivation, and tourism. Also, lumbering is practised.

Many tourists come from foreign countries to view the wildlife that lives in the vast grassland. Numerous national parks have been established in this region.

In Tanzania, for example, there are established national parks such as Serengeti, Mikumi, Selous, Tarangire, Ruaha, Saadani, Ngorongoro, Katavi and Manyara.

The major crops grown in this region are maize, millet, groundnuts, beans, onions, cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, sisal, rice and coffee.

Tropical monsoon climate

The areas which mainly experience monsoon type of climate are South East Asia, Northern Australia, Southern China, and the Indian subcontinent. This type of climate is most marked in India.

Climatic characteristics

  • Seasonal reversal of winds (monsoon winds); onshore during one season and offshore during another season.
  • Onshore wind brings heavy rain to coastal regions while offshore winds bring little or no rain, except where they cross a wide stretch of the sea.
  • Temperatures range from 32oC in the hot season to about 25oC in the cool season, giving an annual range of about 7oC.
  • Annual rainfall varies greatly, depending on relief and the angle at which onshore winds meet the highlands (aspect).
  • There are three marked seasons: cool, dry season; hot, dry season; and hot, wet season.

This climate can generally be described as having a hot, wet season and a cool, dry season.

The main human activities carried out in areas experiencing this type of climate include rice growing and livestock husbandry. Apart from rice, the other crops grown are wheat, millet, maize, and sorghum.

Sugarcane, cotton, and juice are important lowland crops grown in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

The other crops grown are tea (Sri-lanka, Bangladesh, and India) and rubber in Malaysia. Animals kept in this climatic region include pigs, cattle, buffalos, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Tropical marine climate

Regions with this type of climate are located on the east coasts of regions lying between 10oN
and 25oN and 10o S and 25oS. These areas are under the influence of onshore trade winds. The
main areas are the east coasts of Brail and Malagasy, the lowlands of central American and the
west indies the coast of Queen land (Australia) and the southern Islands of the Philippines.

Climatic characteristics

  • Temperature characteristics are similar to those of the equatorial climate.
  • Hot season temperature is 29oC and cooler season temperature is 21oC. (c) Annual temperature range is about 8oC.

  • Total annual rainfall varies from 1000 mm to 200 mm depending on the location.
  • Rainfall is both convection and topographic (brought by onshore trade winds).
  • Maximum rainfall occurs in the hot season.
  • High humidity throughout the year.

This climate can generally be described as hot and humid throughout the year. However, the climate is cooled by the onshore winds blowing almost every day.

The main human activities carried out in this climatic region include crop cultivation, lumbering, and animal rearing.

The crops grown include sugarcane, rice, banana, and wheat. The animals kept are such as cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Tropical desert climate

The tropical desert climate occurs on the western margins of landmasses between latitude 20o to 30o north and south of the equator. The climate is experienced in all the major tropical deserts of
the world.

The hot deserts occupy about one-third of the earth’s surface. The principal tropical deserts occur on the continents as follows:

Africa: Sahara, Kalahari and Namib Deserts.

Asia: the desert of Jordan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Israel, and the desert of India.

North America: Mohave, Colorado and Mexican Deserts.

South America: Atacama Desert.

Australia: Great Australian Desert

Climatic characteristics

  • Very little total annual rainfall (less than 120 mm in any one year).
  • Mean monthly temperatures range from 29oC in the hot season to 10oC in the cool season.
  • In most deserts, daytime temperature can rise to as high as 47oC or more.
  • Night temperatures can fall to as low as 16oC in summer and 5oC in winter.
  • Very high diurnal temperature range (due to very hot days and very old nights).
  • The annual temperature range is large. It is about 16oC.
  • Humidity is always low and therefore evaporation is high.

Desert environments support very minimal human activities. Wherever water is available as inmoases (singular oasis), and along rivers, agriculture is practised.

The crops grown include date palms, cotton, rice, sugarcane, vines, millet, tomatoes, tobacco and fruits.

Apart from the people who live permanently in oases, there are nomads who move from one place to another in search of pasture. They keep camels, donkeys, goats, and sheep.

The camel is an animal that has adapted to desert conditions. It can survive for many days without drinking water. It is mainly used for transport in the desert.

Other desert people are good hunters and also collect food from the bushes. The other activities that can be done by desert dwellers include weaving mats, making ropes, and trading.