Disadvantages of large population size

Disadvantages of overpopulation

The following are the Disadvantages of large population size

  • Shortage of land for settlement and farming leading to land fragmentation.
  • Shortage of social services e.g. schools and hospitals.
  • High government expenditure to provide social services for the people.
  • High dependency ratio since much of the population is made up of children hence reducing investments and future savings.
  • High rates of unemployment because of the less available jobs.
  • Unemployment leads to high rates of crime and social unrest especially among the youths.
  • Exhaustion of resources due to over exploitation.
  • It encourages rural-urban migration and its evils like high crime rate, unemployment and drug abuse.

  • Shortage of accommodation leading to development of slums.
  • Shortage of food which results to famine and starvation.
  • Overcrowding which results into congestion and poor hygiene hence easy spread of diseases. 
  • High cost of living due to competition for scarce resources.
  • Poverty as a result of high dependency ratio.
  • Environmental degradation through pollution, soil erosion, swamp reclamation and deforestation.
  • Desertification/global warming due to pollution, deforestation and industrialisation.

Steps being taken to solve such problems

  • Encouraging family planning methods to reduce on the birth rates involving the use of pills, condoms and other contraceptives.
  • Encouraging outward migration from the densely populated region to the sparsely populated areas.
  • Setting up resettlement schemes for people from densely populated regions.

  • Low enforcement policies are being emphasized to reduce the level of crime rates.
  • Agriculture modernization has also been emphasized through the use of high yielding food varieties to increase food production and combat the problem of famine.
  • Vertical expansion of towns and cities through building of storied buildings has been embraced to solve the problem of congestion in most African cities.

  • Land reform policies like land consolidation are being emphasized to solve the problem of land fragmentation.
  • Industrialization is also being encouraged in most African countries to reduce over dependence on the land and reduce the level of u employment.
  • The governments are also trying very hard to establish enough social services such as health centres, schools and transport to contain the problem of congestion over these services.
  • Encouraging monogamy to reduce polygamy.
  • Rising the marriage age for girls to reduce early marriages.


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