Population change refers to the difference between the size population at the beginning and at the end of a period. It can refer to the growth or decline in population
The following are effects of population change on individuals and nations.
The effect of population change are quite varied. Population change affect both the individuals as well as the nations at large. The effect can be positive or negative.
EFFECT ON THE INDIVIDUAL.
A high fertility rate results in a large number of children that a family has to look after. Migration has its own effects on individuals in the number of ways.
- Some individuals may change their lifestyles by becoming more sophisticated. This happens after gaining more skills and exposure to more sophisticated lifestyles where the individual migrated to.
- Some individuals after migrating to urban areas and getting jobs may take a much longer time to get married.
- When spouses are separated for long periods of time, this may lead to the breaking up of marriages. Either spouse may engage in extramarital relationships during the period of absence of the partner.
- Some individuals who migrate to urban areas lose their cultural values and this leads to immorality. Some turn to crime.
- Some people save a lot of money from the income they get from working. The income is used to improve their standards of living.
EFFECTS OF POPULATION CHANGE IN A NATION.
- It tends to lead to increased poverty. This is because these countries are lagging behind in technological advancement in areas such as agriculture and industries because of the insufficient capital as well as poor management of resources.
As technological advancement continues, population pressure may cease.
- Overpopulation is a situation whereby a region or country has such a high population that it cannot be supported fully due to a strain on the available resources. In such a situation, many people live in abject poverty.
- Overpopulation also leads to unemployment or even underdevelopment of a nation or even underemployment.
- Overpopulation leads to poor housing and health facilities because the demand for these facilities is far greater than the supply.
- Agricultural resources are underutilized because of a shortage of land and traditional land tenure systems which hinder modernization of agriculture
- Slow industrial growth because of a shortage of skilled labor. Although there is a large labor force, it is largely unskilled.
My conclusion; Most overpopulated developing nations have a population that is largely traditional. The bias of traditional attitudes slows down modern development as many people stick to the traditional customs and ways of doing things. A large population increases the demand for food. This demand reduces the production of cash crops while increasing the production of food crops.