Nomadic pastoralism involves constant or seasonal movement or migration of nomads and their livestock (cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys, and camels) from one place to another in search of green pastures and water
The following are characteristics of nomadic pastoralism
- Seasonal movement of nomads and their livestock
- cattle are kept as a sign of wealth
- a large herd of cattle with uncontrolled breeding are kept
- lack of organized land tenure where land is communally owned
- little or no crop is grown as much attention is turned to animals
- many kinds of animals (goat, sheep, donkeys etc) are grazed together
- poor marketing of the animals and their products
- There are high incidences of diseases.
Factors Influencing Nomadic Pastoralism
- Grazing areas are free from animal pests especially tsetse flies for being dry and hot.
- Savannah grassland and semi-desert conditions which cause grass to sprout during rains and drying during the hot dry season.
- Availability of grass most times of the year in the bush and wooded savannah.
- Gentle or relatively flat terrain of the areas which makes it easy for the movement of animals from one place to another.
- Sparse population of N and N.E region due to harsh climatic conditions which encourages nomadic pastoralism because each community is able to occupy large tracts of land.
- Desert and semi-desert conditions which don‟t favour agriculture making livestock rearing to be way of earning livelihood.
- Tradition of the people whereby animals are a sign of wealth and are used for paying dowry and slaughtered for festivals.
Measures Taken By the Government to Improve Pastoral Farming
- Encouraging pastoralists through the ministry of livestock to start ranching in order to improve the quality of their animals.
- Improvement of water supply in drier areas by sinking boreholes, wells, construction of dams, etc.
- Establishment of demonstration ranches to sensitize pastoralists on better methods of animal husbandry.
- Construction of cattle dips, and setting animal pest and disease organisations to control pests and diseases.
- Providing extension services to advice pastoralists and offer drug treatment to animals.
- f) Teaching pastoralists through formal education about advantages of keeping manageable sizes of herds.
- g) Encouraging them to keep smaller number of animals to solve the problem of quality.
- h) Ploughing and resowing pasture with more nourishing drought resistant grass.
- i) Purchasing pedigree animals and cross breeding with indigenous animals resulting in hybrid stock which is
- able to resist many tropical diseases, give more milk and better quality meet.