Condition favoring irrigation farming in Egypt

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More than 90% of Egypt is desert which is divided into two by the Nile River. The Nile valley and delta are main centres of settlement and cultivation. Less than 10% of Egypt land area is suitable for cultivation and hence the need for irrigation.

The following are conditions that favour irrigation farming in Egypt:

  • Supportive government policies toward irrigation farming by giving tax incentives and encouraging farm research.
  • A large market for farm produce within the urban centres of Egypt and other countries
  • Modern technology is employed in farms such as use of refrigerated trucks, cold rooms and construction of canals.
  • A large supply of skilled labour to work in irrigation farms such as drivers, harvesters and managers
  • The presence of modern transport infrastructures such as railways, roads, airports which enable easy marketing and distribution of crops to market centres
  • The formation of cooperative unions which lead to reduction of cost of production such as through collective buying of farm input.
  • The area receives low rainfall necessitating irrigation and farming. More than 90% of Egypt receives less than 250 mm of rainfall
  • Presence of extensive and cheap land to establish the irrigation farms due to low population.
  • Low incidences of pests and diseases due to hot temperature which supports the growth of crops
  • Relatively flat landscape in the central valley which allows the use of machines like tractors on the farms and allows irrigation and gravity flow.

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