More than 90% of Egypt is desert which is divided into two by the Nile River. The Nile valley and delta are main centres of settlement and cultivation. Less than 10% of Egypt land area is suitable for cultivation and hence the need for irrigation.
The following are conditions that favour irrigation farming in Egypt:
- Supportive government policies toward irrigation farming by giving tax incentives and encouraging farm research.
- A large market for farm produce within the urban centres of Egypt and other countries
- Modern technology is employed in farms such as use of refrigerated trucks, cold rooms and construction of canals.
- A large supply of skilled labour to work in irrigation farms such as drivers, harvesters and managers
- The presence of modern transport infrastructures such as railways, roads, airports which enable easy marketing and distribution of crops to market centres
- The formation of cooperative unions which lead to reduction of cost of production such as through collective buying of farm input.
- The area receives low rainfall necessitating irrigation and farming. More than 90% of Egypt receives less than 250 mm of rainfall
- Presence of extensive and cheap land to establish the irrigation farms due to low population.
- Low incidences of pests and diseases due to hot temperature which supports the growth of crops
- Relatively flat landscape in the central valley which allows the use of machines like tractors on the farms and allows irrigation and gravity flow.