Sugar cane is the crop used in making sugar.
The following are physical and climatic conditions which favour sugar cane growing:
- High temperatures throughout the growing period, with mean monthly temperatures not falling much below 21ºC.
- Abundant moisture (rainfall) – Sugar cane grows best where annual rainfall is between 1000 mm to 1200 mm. The rain should be well distributed throughout the growing season. However, drier weather is required when the cane has reached maturity or just before harvesting.
- A period of dry sunny weather for ripening and harvesting is also important.
Other physical conditions necessary for the cultivation of sugar cane include:
- Well-drained soils – cultivation and harvesting of the cane is easier if the land is flat.
- Abundant water supply for irrigation, particularly where rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the growing season. Water for irrigation is obtained from both rivers and underground sources (boreholes).