Overpopulation is a function of the number of individuals compared to the relevant resources, such as the water and essential nutrients they need to survive. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. Overpopulation is a situation where people in a particular country are many in relation to the available resources; it is also a situation whereby the population of a country is above the optimum population. This situation will force people to compete for the available resources and due to shortages of resources; there will be general decline in the standard of living.
Positive effects of Overpopulation
- Defense: Large Population makes it possible to mobilize enough people to defend the integrity of the country in times of war and any other emergencies.
- Increase in Labor Market: Increasing population ensures increase in the labor force. Lack of growth in the labor force will make a country static, retarded and gets to equilibrium at less than full employment level of the economy.
- Large Market: Investors would like to invest in a country with a large population. As the population continues to grow so will be the growth in demand for food, shelter, clothing etc.
Negative effects of Overpopulation
- Poverty: As a result of overpopulation, the available resources would not be able to do round and this will result to poverty in the country.
- Unemployment: Overpopulation leads to unemployment, this is as a result of the number of people looking for job outruns available resources.
- Social Problems: Overpopulation brings about social problems such as bribery, prostitution, armed robbery etc.
- A decrease in the standard of living: Overpopulation leads to a fall in the standard of living. As a result of increased number of people, demand for essential commodities becomes highly competitive and it is those that are rich that would be able to afford them, thereby bringing a fall in the standard of living. Brain drain
- Increase in Government expenses
- Possible increase in dependency ratio
- Low Per capita income if production level does not increase
- Increase in imports, which will result to balance of payments deficit
- Shortage of food
- Difficulty in educating the children
- Under utilization of Labor