We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research.

From the time immediately after World War II until the early 1990s, there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the research endeavor.

Two marker events stand out (among many others) as symbolic of this consensus.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study involved the withholding of known effective treatment for syphilis from African-American participants who were infected.

Events like these forced the reexamination of ethical standards and the gradual development of a consensus that potential human subjects needed to be protected from being used as ‘guinea pigs’ in scientific research.

In many cases, it is the ethical assumptions of the previous thirty years that drive this ‘go-slow’ mentality.

After all, we would rather risk denying treatment for a while until we achieve enough confidence in a treatment, rather than run the risk of harming innocent people (as in the Nuremberg and Tuskegee events).

But now, those who were threatened with fatal illness were saying to the research establishment that they wanted to be test subjects, even under experimental conditions of considerable risk.

Although the last few years in the ethics of research have been tumultuous ones, it is beginning to appear that a new consensus is evolving that involves the stakeholder groups most affected by a problem participating more actively in the formulation of guidelines for research.

Ethical Issues

There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary social and medical research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants.

The principle of voluntary participation requires that people not be coerced into participating in research. This is especially relevant where researchers had previously relied on ‘captive audiences’ for their subjects — prisons, universities, and places like that.

Closely related to the notion of voluntary participation is the requirement of informed consent. Essentially, this means that prospective research participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give their consent to participate.

Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation.

Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological. There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants.

Almost all research guarantees the participants confidentiality — they are assured that identifying information will not be made available to anyone who is not directly involved in the study.

The stricter standard is the principle of anonymity which essentially means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study — even to the researchers themselves.

Clearly, the anonymity standard is a stronger guarantee of privacy, but it is sometimes difficult to accomplish, especially in situations where participants have to be measured at multiple time points (e.g., a pre-post study).

Increasingly, researchers have had to deal with the ethical issue of a person’s right to service.

Good research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group — a group of participants who do not get the treatment or program that is being studied.

But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed.

Even when clear ethical standards and principles exist, there will be times when the need to do accurate research runs up against the rights of potential participants.

No set of standards can possibly anticipate every ethical circumstance. Furthermore, there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider all relevant ethical issues in formulating research plans.

To address such needs most institutions and organizations have formulated an Institutional Review Board (IRB), a panel of persons who reviews grant proposals with respect to ethical implications and decides whether additional actions need to be taken to assure the safety and rights of participants.

By reviewing proposals for research, IRBs also help to protect both the organization and the researcher against potential legal implications of neglecting to address important ethical issues of participants. 

Ethics plays a crucial role in research and is of significant importance. Here are some key reasons why ethics in research is essential:

  1. Protection of Participants: Ethical research ensures the well-being, rights, and dignity of research participants. It requires obtaining informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and minimizing any potential harm or risks to participants. Ethical guidelines help prevent exploitation, discrimination, and any form of mistreatment during the research process.
  2. Trust and Credibility: Ethical research builds trust between researchers and participants, as well as the broader scientific community and society at large. When research is conducted with integrity, transparency, and adherence to ethical principles, it enhances the credibility and reliability of the findings.
  3. Validity and Reliability: Ethical practices contribute to the validity and reliability of research outcomes. By following ethical guidelines, researchers ensure that their methodologies are sound, data collection is accurate, and analysis is unbiased. This strengthens the scientific rigor and quality of the research.
  4. Social Responsibility: Ethical research promotes social responsibility by addressing important societal issues and conducting studies that have the potential to improve the well-being of individuals and communities. It ensures that research is conducted in a manner that respects social values, cultural diversity, and human rights.
  5. Intellectual Property and Publication Ethics: Ethics in research includes proper attribution and acknowledgment of intellectual property rights, such as giving credit to previous work and avoiding plagiarism. It also encompasses responsible publication practices, including accurate reporting of research methods, results, and conclusions.
  6. Compliance with Regulations: Ethical research adheres to legal and regulatory requirements, such as obtaining necessary approvals from research ethics committees or institutional review boards. Compliance with ethical guidelines is necessary for researchers to conduct their work within the boundaries of the law and relevant regulations.
  7. Long-term Impact: Ethical research considers the potential long-term impact and implications of the research findings. It encourages researchers to reflect on the ethical, social, and environmental consequences of their work and take measures to mitigate any negative effects.

By upholding ethics in research, researchers contribute to the advancement of knowledge while ensuring the protection and well-being of individuals involved in the research process. Ethical research practices are fundamental to maintaining the integrity, credibility, and social relevance of scientific inquiry.

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