Month: September 2015

9 features that are formed due to wave erosion (wave erosional features)

A wave is an up-and-down movement of water. When wind blows over the ocean, waves are formed. Tides, storms, and earthquakes also cause ocean waves. The force of breaking waves, or waves striking the shoreline, can break rocks into small pieces. They grind against one another and wear down rock particles until they become sand. …

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Ethics in research

Ethics in research

We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research. From the time immediately after World War II until the early 1990s, there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the research endeavor. Two marker events stand out (among many …

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Types of variables in research

2 main types of variables in research

A variable is any entity that can take ondifferent values. Anything that can vary can be considered a variable. For instance, agecan be considered a variable because age can take different values for different people or for the same person at different times. Similarly, countrycan be considered a variable because a person’s country can be …

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Structure of research report

Structure of research report

The structure of the research report, dissertation or thesis is based on a standard format which contains the following sections: Preface Text Supplementary PrefaceThis section consists of the following: Title PageThe title page is the first page after the front cover and should include the research title which has been approved by the Faculty, name …

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The standard deviation for grouped and ungrouped data calculation (step by step illustration)

The standard deviation for grouped and ungrouped data calculation (step by step illustration)

Non-Grouped DataNon-grouped data is just a list of values. The standard deviation is given by the formula:s means ‘standard deviation’.S means ‘the sum of’. means ‘the mean’ ExampleFind the standard deviation of 4, 9, 11, 12, 17, 5, 8, 12, 14First work out the mean: 10.222Now, subtract the mean individually from each of the numbers …

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4 types of ground water

4 types of groundwater

Ground or subterranean water is water that is found below the earth’s surface. Groundwater is simply water under the ground where the soil is completely filled or saturated with water. This water is also called an “aquifer.” The following are four types of  ground water: Connate water. It may also referred as fossil water. This …

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Importance of levelling in field work

Leveling is a method or element of land surveying which deals with determining points on land surface above sea level. The points of known height are called benchmarks and they are determined from an assumed zero height point at sea level called datum. It employs leveling instrument such as theodolite and the abney level.  The …

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