Climate change refers to the shift in global temperatures and precipitation over time. It is a long-term alteration in the weather patterns especially temperature and storm activity. In other words, it is the man-made or natural shift in average atmospheric conditions over time.
The basic cause is the human activities that emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere that then lead to global warming. The common GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4), HydroFluoroCarbons (HCFs), Perfluorocarbons (PCFs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and Halons.
The following are action or adjustment measures to cope with climate change:
- Sensitization of the community on climate change and capacity building for resilience in schools, churches, communities, etc.
- Tree planting/afforestation and forest or wildlife protection
- Rainwater harvesting.
- Construction of water reservoirs/dams and community ponds for irrigation.
- Conservation of the available water resources – behavioral change towards water use.
- Planting different crops and those that are tolerant to drought i.e. adaptation to agricultural production suited to changing weather patterns.
- Diversification of livelihoods for alternative incomes in case of disasters.
- Land degradation management.
- Enhanced disease and pests monitoring and control.
- Recycling and reusing waster where possible/proper waste management.
- Adoption of energy-saving technologies through research.
- Use of indigenous knowledge e.g. in food preservation or grain storage.
- Establishment of demonstration farms to train farmers on improved farming techniques.
- Integration of climate change into research, development plans and budgets, etc.
- Tree planting/growing (afforestation /reforestation and agro-forestry). Planting more trees in urban areas
- Energy efficiency and energy saving technologies e.g. energy saving stoves, construction of well ventilated houses.
- Use of renewable/alternative energy: HEP, wind energy, solar, biogas etc.
- Changing the transport mode i.e. using vehicles that are more fuel-efficient and use of public transport such as buses, trains, etc., or cycling.
- Route and road construction planning.
- Wetland conservation e.g. bye-Law enforcement.
- Avoiding deforestation and forest degradation.
- Proper waste management e.g. composting and reusing or recycling of waste
- Stopping the used of fire as a way to clear land for farming.
- Using less fertilizer and adopt better feed mixtures for livestock.
- Population control through family planning and information reproductive health.