When temperature inversion occurs, cold air underlies warmer air at higher altitudes.
There are four kinds of temperature inversions: ground, turbulence, subsidence, and frontal.
A ground inversion
develops when air is cooled by contact with a colder surface until it becomes cooler than the overlying atmosphere; this occurs most often on clear nights, when the ground cools off rapidly by radiation.
If the temperature of surface air drops below its dew point, fog may result. Topography greatly affects the magnitude of ground inversions.
If the land is rolling or hilly, the cold air formed on the higher land surfaces tends to drain into the hollows, producing a larger and thicker inversion above low ground and little or none above higher elevations.
A turbulence inversion
often forms when quiescent air overlies turbulent air.
Within the turbulent layer, vertical mixing carries heat downward and cools the upper part of the layer.
The unmixed air above is not cooled and eventually is warmer than the air below; an inversion then exists.
A subsidence inversion
develops when a widespread layer of air descends.
The layer is compressed and heated by the resulting increase in atmospheric pressure, and as a result, the lapse rate of temperature is reduced.
If the air mass sinks low enough, the air at higher altitudes becomes warmer than at lower altitudes, producing a temperature inversion.
Subsidence inversions are common over the northern continents in winter and over the subtropical oceans; these regions generally have subsiding air because they are located under large high-pressure centres.
A frontal inversion
occurs when a cold air mass undercuts a warm air mass and lifts it aloft; the front between the two air masses then has warm air above and cold air below.
This kind of inversion has considerable slope, whereas other inversions are nearly horizontal.
In addition, humidity may be high, and clouds may be present immediately above it.