Climate is the average weather condition of a given area recorded over a very long period of time.
The description of climate in the topographic map is based on two-element of climate namely temperature and rainfall since their variation can easily be explained by various evidence from the map.
Some hints in interpreting climate from topographic map:
Latitude of the area
latitude is the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth’s equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
Through studying latitude one is able to deduce the climatic condition of a given mapped area.
For example, in the area with a latitude 5 degrees north or south of the equator the area is considered to be in equatorial climatic condition while the area between 5 to 15 degrees north or south of the equator is in tropical climatic condition.
Presence of water bodies and drainage pattern
A general high density of streams indicates that the area receives high rainfall. in another case the presence of low density, intermittent or seasonal streams, salt lakes, and boreholes indicate aridity.
The presence of forest in the map indicates heavy rainfall while woodland vegetation indicates moderate rainfall. shrubs, thickets, and grassland indicate a dry condition or light rainfall
crops grow in those areas where water and temperature conditions are favorable for their growth.
Mountains do also create their own climate due to the effect of aspect which creates a rain shadow