The Savanna biome has a wet/dry climate. Its Köppen climate group is Aw. The A stands for a tropical climate and the w for a dry season in the winter.

Savannah refers to grassland.

Savannah vegetation can be sub-divided into two:

Savannah woodlands

it has a continuous cover of dense trees with little growth of grass.

Savannah grasslands

It has a continuous cover of grass with scattered trees

Distribution of savanna climate

The savanna or Sudan climate is confined within the tropics.

  • The belt includes West Africa Sudan, and then curves southwards into East Africa and Southern Africa north of the Tropic of Capricorn.
  • In South America, there are Llanos of the Orinoco basin and the Campos of the Brazilian Highlands.
  • The Australian Savanna is located south of the monsoon strip running from West to East, north of the Tropic of Capricorn.

 Savanna climatic condition has the following characteristics:

  • In the savanna climate there is a distinct dry season, which is in the winter. Savannas get all their rain in the summer months. During the distinct dry season of a savanna, most of the plants shrivel up and die. Some rivers and streams dry up. Most of the animals migrate to find food.
  • In the wet season all of the plants are lush and the rivers flow freely. The animals migrate back to graze. In West Africa the rainy season begins in May.

  • It is usually cooler during the dry season by a few degrees. Because it is in the tropical latitudes that is still hot enough. The savanna climate has a temperature range of  20° – 30° C. In the winter, it is usually about 20° – 25° C. In the summer the temperature ranges from  25° – 30° C. In a Savanna the temperature does not change a lot. When it does, it is very gradual and not drastic.
  • There is an annual precipitation of 10 to 30 inches (100 to 150 cm) of rain. From December to February hardly any rain falls at all.


  • By having small shiny leaves
  • They are resistant to fire
  • They have an umbrella shape to shield the roots from heat from the sun
  • They have long tap roots to reach underground water
  • They have thick barks and swollen trunks to conserve water
  • Trees are deciduous which means they drop their leaves once in a year

Characteristics of Natural Vegetation in savanna

  • The savanna type of vegetation is made up of tall grass and short scattered trees
  • They have long roots and thick bark to reduce loss of water due to transpiration.
  • Many trees are Umbrella- shaped to shield their roots from the scorching heat.
  • Trees are drought resistance trees such as Baobab.
  • Trees are deciduous in nature that is they shed their leaves during the dry season.


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