The equator is an imaginary line running at the centre of the earth from east to west.
Location of the climate.
The climate is experienced by the areas located close to the equator between 5 degrees north and 5 degrees south of the equator.
The climate is found also on Lake Victoria shores and islands though it is modified by the altitude.
It is found also in the coastal areas and the eastern parts of Pemba and Zanzibar Islands.
The following are characteristics of the equatorial climate.
- The high mean annual temperature of about 27 0C.
- The difference between the average temperature of the hottest and coldest months (annual temperature range) is very small and it can be as small as 3 degrees Celsius
- the difference between the highest temperature in the day and the lowest temperature at night (diurnal temperature range is usually large
- Uniformly high temperatures of about 30 0C with only a small annual range.
- High relative humidity of about 80%. This is due to high rainfall which rains almost throughout the year and high temperature which cause evaporation which in turn leads to high humidity throughout the year
- Abundant rainfall of 2000 mm on average.
- Double maxima rainfall around April and October each year. This means that The equatorial regions experience a long rainy season between March and June and a short rainy season between October and December
- The region receives convectional rainfall
- A diverse range of plants due to excessive rainfall and temperature
- Rainfall is accompanied by thunder and lightning.
- Absence of distinct dry season.
- High rainfall and humidity lead to the formation of rainforest which comprises four layers namely crown of the tallest trees, canopy, understory, and shrub layer. The rainforest is made up of very dense vegetation. Four square miles of rainforest may contain as many as 750 species of tree and 1,500 species of a flowering plant. Rainforests cover only about 6 percent of the Earth’s surface. However, they contain about half of the world’s known animal species and provide about 40% of the world’s oxygen.