7 CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUATORIAL CLIMATE

7 CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUATORIAL CLIMATE




Equatorial climate can simply be defined as climate along the equator. the equatorial climate is also known as rainforest climate because there are mostly rainforest along the equator

The equator is an imaginary line running at the centre of the earth from east to west.

Location of the climate

The climate is experienced by the areas located close to the equator between 5 degrees north and 5 degrees south of the equator. 

The climate is located in the Congo Basin, the West African coasts, in Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon and, the amazon basin in South America




Equatorial climate can simply be defined as climate along the equator. the equatorial climate is also known as rainforest climate because there are mostly rainforest along the equator

The climate is found also on Lake Victoria shores and islands though it is modified by the altitude.  

It is found also in the coastal areas and the eastern parts of Pemba and Zanzibar Islands.




The following are characteristics of the equatorial climate.

The high mean annual temperature of about 27 0C.  

The high mean annual temperature of about 27 0C

The difference between the average temperature of the hottest and coldest months (annual temperature range) is very small and it can be as small as 3 degrees Celsius

The difference between the average temperature of the hottest and coldest months (annual temperature range) is very small and it can be as small as 3 degrees Celsius

the difference between the highest temperature in the day and the lowest temperature at night (diurnal temperature range is usually large

the difference between the highest temperature in the day and the lowest temperature at night (diurnal temperature range is usually large

Uniformly high temperatures of about 30 0C with only a small annual range. 

High relative humidity of about 80%.

 This is due to high rainfall which rains almost throughout the year and high temperature which cause evaporation which in turn leads to high humidity throughout the year




Abundant rainfall of 2000 mm on average.  

equatorial climate Abundant rainfall of 2000 mm on average

Double maxima rainfall around April and October each year

This means that The equatorial regions experience a long rainy season between March and June and a short rainy season between October and December. this is caused by inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) which occur when trade wind converge in the zone of low pressure in equatorial regions causing heavy rainfall and thunderstorm.

Double maxima rainfall around April and October each year.  This means that The equatorial regions experience a long rainy season between March and June and a short rainy season between October and December

The region receives convectional rainfall




The region receives convectional rainfall

A diverse range of plants (equatorial rainforest) due to excessive rainfall and temperature

the equatorial rainforest have very dense vegetation. many different types of trees and other plants can be found growing in relatively small area of rainforest. more species of plants can be found in the rainforest than in other types of plant community. four square miles of rainforest may contain as many as 750 species of trees and 1500 species of flowering plants




Rainfall is accompanied by thunder and lightning.  

Rainfall is accompanied by thunder and lightning

Absence of distinct dry season.

presence of rainforest

High rainfall and humidity lead to the formation of rainforest which comprises four layers namely crown of the tallest trees, canopy, understory, and shrub layer.

The rainforest is made up of very dense vegetation. Four square miles of rainforest may contain as many as 750 species of tree and 1,500 species of a flowering plant.

Rainforests cover only about 6 percent of the Earth’s surface. However, they contain about half of the world’s known animal species and provide about 40% of the world’s oxygen.




High rainfall and humidity lead to the formation of rainforest which comprises four layers namely crown of the tallest trees, canopy, understory, and shrub layer. The rainforest is made up of very dense vegetation

Characteristics of Natural Vegetation in an equatorial climate

  • Close cover of all tall trees of 20-50m metres
  • Trees are evergreen
  • The forests lack undergrowth because the canopy layers cut out light.
  • Trees form a canopy
  • Trees do not grow in pure stand

Natural Vegetation in equatorial climate

Equatorial climate has the following tree species:

  • Mahogany
  • Ebony
  • Greenheart
  • Rosewood




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